Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg.
It lies in the northwest of the country, very close to the German border. It is located at the northern boundary of the Alps, on the banks of the Salzach river. The old city centre is dominated by baroque towers and churches and the massive Fortress Hohensalzburg. The "Altstadt" how the historic centre is called, is one of the best-preserved city centres in the German-speaking world, and was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The name Salzburg literally means "Salt Castle", and derives its name from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach river, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century, as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers.